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Xandersol, a new, potentially lethal drug, is being blamed for numerous illnesses and the deaths of six Anchorstown residents. According to water and sewer authority officials, the drug has somehow found its way into the city water system, resulting in the contamination of household drinking water for thousands of local residents.
The question lies not in determining how, but, more importantly, where the drug entered the city water system; once the leak is found it can quickly be contained. Experts agree that, given the relative scarcity of Xandersol in amounts large enough to affect an entire community, the leak could only have occurred in the following three locations: 1) the Griffen Pharmaceuticals Production Facility (GPPF), 2) the Waste Pharmaceuticals Processing Plant (WPPP), or 3) the Riverdale Testing Center (RTC).
Support for the claim that Xandersol entered the city water system at the GPPF is widespread. According to a recent poll, an overwhelming majority of local residents—nearly 80%—believe this to be the case. Marcia Downing, a mother of three, advocates that the GPPF is to blame. “It seems pretty obvious that the leak happened at the GPPF,” she says. “Just ask around. Nearly everyone on the block will tell you so. I mean, I don’t understand what the big mystery is. If everyone says it’s true, then it’s probably true. Strength in numbers,” she says. “That’s what my mom used to say.” As a result of the disaster, Marcia has had to take off work to care for her children, whom she believes have been adversely affected by the contaminated water. “I’ve taken off three days since the disaster. And those are unpaid days. I don’t have the luxury of paid sick days like some people.” She shakes her head. “You know things are bad when you can’t even drink the water.”
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While support for the claim that Xandersol entered the water at the GPPF is popular, this theory lacks the support of widely recognizable figures such as big name actor Evert Milkin. Milkin, on location for a shoot for his upcoming blockbuster movie, had a chance to spend two days in Anchorstown. Upon being warned about the drinking water problem, he decided to investigate for himself. Milkin was shocked at what he found. He purports to have discovered a dried pool of Xandersol residue collected about the entrance of a city sewer opening just outside the WPPP. Acting upon these findings, Milkin has galvanized many to support the claim that the Xandersol entered the city water system at the WPPP. Alyssa Davis, one of Milkin’s newest followers, explains, “If a nationally recognized and highly respected actor like Milkin tells you it’s true, you can rest assured it most definitely is.” Milkin says that he won’t comment on his plans to indict the WPPP for negligence, but he says that the “wheels are in motion.”
Since Milkin’s investigation, the WPPP has come under increased scrutiny. But that is not to say the RTC is not also feeling the heat. According to local engineer Todd Severs, the RTC is the one at fault. “It should be pretty clear to everyone that the RTC is responsible for the disaster. Just take a look at their past record. In the last two years alone, the RTC has incurred 16 citations for noncompliance with federal and state drug testing standards.” Severs continues, “Make no mistake, a corporation like that is the one to turn your attention to in a situation like this.” In recent days, Severs’ statements have begun to resonate with the public. When confronted with growing concern, the RTC issued the following statement in its defense: “We of the RTC are troubled by the recent accusations regarding our involvement in the contamination of the city water system. While we understand that much of this blame stems from our poor record of upholding testing standards, we would like to remind local residents of the simple, yet important facts: The RTC has been testing the drugs that the people have come to depend on. What is more, we have done it on a shoestring budget. Many of our employees are forced to work under meager circumstances—circumstances that few would put up with unless they weren’t so dutifully driven to carry out this noble endeavor. Several of our employees are barely able to clothe their children and put food on the table. In our quest to create safe, helpful, reliable drugs, regardless of the hardships we suffer, it seems we have now become completely unappreciated.”
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Reports of those adversely affected by Xandersol are on the rise. In desperation, residents have resorting to fitting out their taps with makeshift Xandersol filters. For many, it seems no solution is on the horizon. In passing, we conducted a final interview with a man pushing a cart who, despite our efforts, evades identification. “Instead of wasting time blaming everybody,” says the man, “why not just check all three?” It seems he is referring to the GFFC, WPPP, and RTC—the three potential leak sites. “I’m thirsty,” he continues, moving away. “You wouldn’t happen to have any bottled water, would you?”
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A. a magazine about powerful new drugs
B. an Anchorstown newspaper
C. a cautionary pamphlet included in every new pack of Xandersol
D. an encyclopedia article about Xandersol
E. a blockbuster movie review
2) Based on its use in paragraph 3, it can be inferred that advocate belongs to which of the following word
A. acknowledge, concede, recognize
B. adjudicate, determine, select
C. propose, suggest, recommend
D. champion, bolster, support
E. admit, concede, grant
3) Which of the following logical fallacies is present in the argument made in paragraph 3 regarding the claim
that the GFFC is responsible for the disaster?
A. Hasty generalization, characterized by making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases
based on a sample that is inadequate (usually because it is atypical or too small).
B. Missing the point, characterized by a condition in which the premises of an argument do support a
particular conclusion—but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
C. Slippery slope, characterized by an argument in which the arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction,
usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but without enough evidence for that
assumption. The arguer asserts that if we take even one step onto the “slippery slope,” we will end up
sliding all the way to the bottom; he or she assumes we can’t stop partway down the hill.
D. Weak analogy, characterized by an argument that relies on an analogy between two or more objects,
ideas, or situations which are not really alike in the relevant respects.
E. Ad populum, characterized by an argument in which the arguer takes advantage of the desire most
people have to be liked and to fit in with others, using that desire to try to get the audience to accept
his or her argument.
4) As used in paragraph 4, which of the following describes something that is galvanized?
A. Jamie is a welder. Yesterday, I watched him join two pieces of soft, red hot metal by hammering them
together. Sometimes he adds fusible materials to the pieces to be joined.
B. When a bone in the human body gets broken, it can take months before it becomes fully healed.
Oftentimes, once the fractured ends are fused back together, the bone is stronger after the break than
it was before.
C. In Darbyville, poor work conditions have gone unchecked for too long, and the situation is getting
worse. Margo is exciting the impoverished class to rise up against their oppressors.
D. Ichiro is tired of being unappreciated at work. So, he decides to do something about it: tomorrow he
will ask to meet with his boss to discuss the situation personally.
E. Joining in the movement that is sweeping the nation, Alyssa Deporto Roberts, the world renowned
artist, has agreed to quit smoking. The news is making headlines.
5) Which of the following logical fallacies is present in the argument made in paragraph 4 regarding the claim that the WPPP is responsible for the disaster?
A. Ad hominem, characterized by an argument in which the arguer attacks his or her opponent instead of the opponent’s argument.
B. Red herring, characterized by an argument in which, partway through the argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what is really at stake.
C. Begging the question, characterized by an argument that asks the reader to simply accept the conclusion without providing real evidence; the argument either relies on a premise that says the same thing as the conclusion (commonly referred to as “being circular” or “circular reasoning”), or simply ignores an important (but questionable) assumption that the argument rests on.
D. Appeal to ignorance, characterized by the supposition that, due to a lack of conclusive evidence, the conclusion of an argument should be accepted.
E. Appeal to authority, characterized by the attempt to get readers to agree with us simply by impressing them with a prominent figure or by appealing to a supposed authority who really is not much of an expert.
6) Which of the following logical fallacies is present in the argument made in paragraph 5 regarding the claim that the RTC is responsible for the disaster?
A. Post hoc, characterized by an argument in which two sequential events are said to be causally related, when this is not actually the case; the arguer wrongly concludes that the earlier event caused the later. That is, correlation is not the same thing as causation.
B. Ad hominem, characterized by an argument in which the arguer attacks his or her opponent instead of the opponent’s argument.
C. Hasty generalization, characterized by making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate (usually because it is atypical or too small).
D. Equivocation, characterized by sliding between two or more different meanings of a single word or phrase that is important to the argument.
E. False dichotomy, characterized by an argument in which the arguer makes it look like there are only two choices (one that is logical and one that is illogical), when, in reality, there are multiple options.
7) As used in paragraph 5, which is the best antonym for resonate?
8) Which of the following logical fallacies is present in the argument made in paragraph 5 regarding the defense put forth by the RTC?
A. Missing the point, characterized by an argument in which the premises support a particular conclusion—but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
B. Ad populum, characterized by an argument in which the arguer takes advantage of the desire most people have to be liked and to fit in with others, using that desire to try to get the audience to accept his or her argument.
C. Appeal to pity, characterized by an argument in which the arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
D. Slippery slope, characterized by an argument in which the arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but without enough evidence for that assumption. The arguer asserts that if we take even one step onto the “slippery slope,” we will end up sliding all the way to the bottom; he or she assumes we can’t stop partway down the hill.
E. Red herring, characterized by an argument in which, partway through the argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what is really at stake.
Correct Answers ( Soruların doğru yanıtları )